-- Historic Developments since 1900
Michaeler Platz This plain fašade created at the beginning of the 20th Century an uproar in empyreal Vienna.
What can shake us now beginning 21st Century, straw bale and mud houses?  

Soon after the establishment of the ‘Art Nouveau’, still left with some of the richness of the fore-last century’s ornamentation, the New Art changed into the ‘Modern Style’. Now any sculptural detail, that extended the flat wall, was stripped off. Generally held by art historians as the building marking this beginning, is the shop by architect Adolph Loos at the MichaŰlerplatz in Vienna. It was his first commission, which he had won in a competition in 1909. This was very shocking for empyreal Vienna, as it happened to be situated opposite the empyreal Hofburg.
Detail Loos House
Detail of Loos House in Vienna
Newport Beach House

Beach House by Schindler

Vienna became very influential for the development of the Modern style and the Viennese architects Schindler and Neutra contributed a great deal to the development of the ‘California Style’ houses. Rudolf Schindler lived in Hollywood and worked for some time with Frank Lloyd Wright. They worked with natural materials such as adobe and wood-logs and were generally interested in healthy living. They were modern architects, but with an interest in traditional styles.
This was very much in contrast with the European developments of the ‘Modern Movement’, being more puritanical, that became the leading influence on "modern life" as it spreads from the Western world. Frank Lloyd Wright remained unique in his designs and developed a new technique of concrete block building. Schindler was similar innovative with the wall slabs of his Kings Road house and the exposed concrete structure of the Beach House both poured on site and then raised in place. The blocks of the Wright houses were often very sculptural.   
Sam Freeman House
Hollywood Hills, F.L. Wright
Museum Tokyo

Museum of Modern Art in Tokyo, L.C.

The Modern Style became the International language of cross-cultural exchange. Both Le Corbusier and Wright worked in Japan with a natural affinity to modernism in as much as it is also firmly rooted in its traditions.
Le Corbusier was most influential for the Modern look of architecture as his architectural philosophy was preparing for a more industrial approach of building. Well known is his “Le Modulor” in which he developed a modular system to aid with the application of standardization in the building trade.  
A unique development took place in the Netherlands referred to as structuralism. With the influence of The Stijl and Rietveld Aldo van Eijck developed as the first architect a structural approach to building finding inspiration by the Dogon people of Africa. This repeat of modular elements affects both the process of industrial development and standardization in building as well as the development of architecture as a language. Herman Hertzberger was the one to apply this structural approach most effectively in his work as a building method through prefabricated elements that build up to larger elements.
Herzberger Model
Model of Office Building by Hertzberger
This is how Modernism came to us in an attempt to define a new architectural language that broke away from its past. This was necessary at the time as the architectural forms were muddled with ornaments of which the meaning was lost.

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